89.1 WEMU

Despite Mideast Turmoil, More French Jews Are Moving To Israel

Jul 24, 2014
Originally published on July 24, 2014 10:53 am

Jews are leaving France and moving to Israel in unprecedented numbers this year.

With the departures expected to surpass 5,000, France could pull ahead of the U.S. for Jewish emigration to Israel, known as aliya. Usually, making aliya is a cause for celebration. But in France this year, it's tinged with bitterness.

The country, which has Western Europe's largest Muslim and Jewish populations, is experiencing repercussions of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. In Paris, pro-Palestinian demonstrations have turned violent, as some demonstrators attacked a synagogue and clashed with riot police.

But even before the latest Mideast flare-up, French Jews say there's been a rise in anti-Semitism in France and across Europe.

Four people were gunned down outside the Jewish museum in neighboring Belgium in May, and three Jewish schoolchildren and a teacher were killed in the southern city of Toulouse in 2012. Both attacks were carried out by young Frenchmen of North African descent, who recently had returned from fighting alongside extremists in places like Syria.

The combination of this violence and the stagnant French economy is fueling the emigration. So far this year, more than 2,000 French Jews have left, up from 580 during the same period last year.

Earlier this month, a Paris synagogue overflowed during a goodbye ceremony for the latest group of Jews to move to Israel.

Among them are Steven Taieb and Meyer Zouari. Both are leaving their families to move to Israel this summer. Armed with computer science degrees, they hope to find good jobs.

Though both young men claim they've always wanted to move to the Holy Land to fully live their faith, they say the recent climate precipitated their departure. Zoauri's father David believes his son made the right decision.

"France is no longer the beautiful country it was," he said. "It's being invaded. Its secularism is being compromised. All you see are women wearing veils in the streets, and mosques are sprouting up everywhere."

France, Zoauri says, is turning into a Muslim country.

Both of the young Jewish men say they grew up in the Paris suburbs, in mixed communities where Jews, Muslims and Christians co-existed.

Taieb said his family never had any problems: "We all said hello to each other and respected each other."

But Zouari had a different experience living amid his Muslim peers.

"I never knew if someone might try to do something to me just because I was Jewish," he said. "For example, I never felt comfortable wearing my skull cap outside. That would have been a provocation."

After singing a beautiful ballad about Jerusalem, the Paris congregation listened to France's head rabbi, who reminded them of their attachment to France, the first country to give Jews full rights as citizens in 1791. Aside from the tragic deportations during the World War II, France generally has been a haven for Jews. Since the that war, the French government has redoubled efforts to make Jewish families feel welcome.

The new wave of anti-Semitism is coming from a young generation Muslims of African and North African descent who are spurred on by the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, said Martine Cohen, a religious expert at France's National Center for Scientific Research.

"Jews know that French authorities are behind them and want to defend them," she says. "This is not a state anti-Semitism. It's an anti-Semitism coming from society."

At a small theater not far from the synagogue, controversial comedian Dieudonne Mbala Mbala performs a crude routine, with plenty of anti-Semitic themes.

Dieudonne always has denied being anti-Semitic, saying he is anti-Zionist. The French interior minister has tried unsuccessfully to ban the shows of this half-African, half-French provocateur, who has a large Internet following.

Outside the theater after the show, some fans — a cluster of young Muslim men — said Dieudonne was not anti-Semitic, just anti-system.

Rabbi Michel Serfaty is furious with the system — and with both French and Jewish authorities. He says they are dealing with the crisis in the wrong way, fighting in the courts instead of working in the streets.

On a recent afternoon, Serfaty handed out flyers in front of a mosque. He said French Muslim and Jewish communities are living in two separate worlds, and must make an attempt to get to know one another.

His flyer says Jews and Muslims must commit to treating each other with mutual respect. Most of the worshippers who talk to Serfaty agree, and say what he's doing is a good thing. Serfaty has a long conversation with one observant Muslim who wears a beard and a djellaba robe, and who says the world for too long has allowed Israel to savage the Palestinians' plight.

"But that isn't our problem here," says Serfaty. "It's a geopolitical problem far away from us and has nothing to do with us. We live in France, we speak French, and it's in both our interests to build this society together. We are all French."

Serfaty has hired and trained several young Muslims to go into Muslim-populated areas and help him with his outreach project. He said that they're making inroads, but that it's a drop in the bucket.

He says the French state needs to employ a battalion of such young people to help turn the tide of misinformation and hate. If not, he said, Jews will continue to leave France.

Copyright 2017 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.

STEVE INSKEEP, HOST:

Thousands of demonstrators marched in Paris yesterday. It was the latest in a series of protests against Israel's actions in Gaza. Now, two previous demonstrations ended in violence and the violence heightened a perception among some French Jews that they face growing anti-Semitism. France has the largest Jewish population in Europe, but French Jews are leaving in unprecedented numbers. Some cite the bad economy. Some say they no longer feel safe. Here's NPR's Eleanor Beardsley.

ELEANOR BEARDSLEY, BYLINE: A Paris synagogue is overflowing during a goodbye ceremony for the latest group of Jews to move to Israel. So far this year, more than 2,000 French Jews have moved there, up from 580 during the same period last year. The total number of departures this year is expected to surpass 5,000. Immigrating to Israel, known as making aliyah, is usually a cause for celebration, but this year, in France, it's tinged with bitterness.

(SOUNDBITE OF SONG)

UNIDENTIFIED MAN 1: (Singing in Hebrew).

BEARDSLEY: High-profile anti-Semitic attacks are on the rise. Four people were gunned down outside the Jewish Museum in neighboring Belgium in May. And three Jewish schoolchildren and a teacher were killed in the southern city of Toulouse a few years ago. Both acts were carried out by young Frenchmen of North African descent, who had recently returned from fighting alongside extremists in the Middle East.

STEVEN TAIEB: (French spoken).

MEYER ZOUARI: (French spoken).

BEARDSLEY: Twenty-two-year-old Steven Taieb and Meyer Zouari are at the ceremony. They're leaving their families to move to Israel this summer. Armed with computer science degrees, they hope to find good jobs. Though both boys say they've always wanted to move to the Holy Land, they say the recent climate precipitated their departure. Zouari's father, David, believes his son made the right decision.

D. ZOUARI: (Through translator) France is no longer the beautiful country it was. It's being invaded. Its secularism is being compromised. All you see are women wearing veils now and mosques are sprouting up everywhere. France is turning into a Muslim country.

UNIDENTIFIED RABBI: (French spoken).

BEARDSLEY: The Rabbi reminds the congregation of its attachment to France, the first country to give Jews full rights in 1791. Ever since the tragic deportations during the Second World War, the French government has redoubled efforts to make Jewish families feel welcome.

MARTINE COHEN: Jews know that public authorities are behind them and they want to defend them, yes? This is not state anti-Semitism. This is anti-Semitism from the society itself.

BEARDSLEY: That's Martine Cohen, a religious expert at CNRS Research Institute. Cohen says the new anti-Semitism is coming from a new generation of Muslims of African and North African descent, who she says are spurred on by the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. France also has Western Europe's largest Muslim population.

(SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED RECORDING)

DIEUDONNE MBALA MBALA: (French spoken).

(LAUGHTER)

MBALA MBALA: (French spoken).

BEARDSLEY: Here in a small theater, not far from the synagogue, controversial comedian, Dieudonne Mbala Mbala, performs a crude routine with plenty of anti-Semitic themes. The French interior minister has tried unsuccessfully to ban the shows at this half-African, half-French provocateur with a large Internet following.

UNIDENTIFIED MAN 2: (French spoken).

BEARDSLEY: Outside the theater after the show, some fans, a group of young Muslim men, tell me Dieudonne is not anti-Semitic, just anti-system.

RABBI MICHEL SERFATY: (French spoken).

BEARDSLEY: Rabbi Michel Serfaty is furious with the system with both French and Jewish authorities. He says they're dealing with the crisis in the wrong way - fighting in the courts instead of in the streets. This afternoon, Serfaty is handing out flyers in front of a mosque. He says French Muslim and Jewish communities are living in two separate worlds and must make an attempt to get to know each other.

SERFATY: (French spoken).

UNIDENTIFIED MAN 3: (French spoken).

(LAUGHTER)

BEARDSLEY: We Jews and Muslims have to commit to treat each other with mutual respect, don't you agree? He asked a surprise worshiper, before extending an invitation to a couscous dinner.

SERFATY: (Through translator) We have to go out and meet Muslims to build the society of tomorrow together. We are all French. They must accept us and we, them.

BEARDSLEY: Serfaty has hired and trained several young Muslims to help him. He says they're making inroads, but it's a drop in the bucket. He says the French state needs to employ a battalion of such young people to help turn the tide of misinformation and hate. If not, he says, Jews will continue to leave France. Eleanor Beardsley, NPR News, Paris. Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.